- Data provided by NASA show that carbon dioxide emissions from human activities, including ammonia production for agriculture, are accelerating at an unprecedented rate resulting in an unequivocal warming effect
- FuelPositive is among companies looking to remedy the situation by developing and providing a green ammonia production system,
- FuelPositive’s system is expected to reduce the carbon footprint linked to the traditional production of (“grey”) ammonia, focused on agriculture, which uses 80% of the world’s ammonia
- Man Energy Solutions and a consortium comprising researchers and collaborators are independently working on ammonia-propelled engines for the shipping and aviation industries, respectively
Though the earth’s climate has continually changed over millions of years, with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (“NASA”) noting that there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat in the last 650,000 years, the current changes are particularly worrying, not only because they have been triggered by human activities since the mid-1800s but also due to the fact that the warming effect is proceeding at an unprecedented rate (https://ibn.fm/xEAK3).
Recognizing the deleterious impacts of climate change as a result of the warming effect caused by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, organizations such as FuelPositive (TSX.V: NHHH) (OTCQB: NHHHF), Man Energy Solutions, and a consortium comprising researchers and collaborators from General Electric (NYSE: GE), Boeing (NYSE: BA), Purdue University, Georgia Tech, and the University of Central Florida, are working to remedy the situation, which, as NASA documents, is dire.
According to NASA, carbon dioxide (“CO2”) produced from human activities is ballooning more than 250 times faster than it did from natural sources after the last Ice Age, about 11,700 years ago. As a result, and based on the agency’s comparison of atmospheric samples, carbon dioxide levels have increased from 300 parts per million (“ppm”) in 1950 to just under 420 ppm currently. The burning of fossil fuels is the primary source of this carbon dioxide, although other human activities, such as deforestation, soil degradation, and land clearing, are also associated with the unprecedented rise in the numbers (https://ibn.fm/Ks0nE).
Fossil fuels power whole industries, including shipping, aviation, hydrogen production, traditional (“grey”) anhydrous ammonia production, and more. Per the latest statistics, the shipping industry produces about 940 million tons of carbon dioxide every year or at least 2.5% of global production from human-related sources (https://ibn.fm/S5Pmq). The aviation industry generates about 2.1% of the world’s CO2 production or 915 million tons (https://ibn.fm/Bnx59), while hydrogen generation and grey ammonia production contribute 830 million tons of CO2 (https://ibn.fm/yBhLN) and 500 million tons of CO2 (https://ibn.fm/lzm0g), respectively, every year.
On its part, FuelPositive aims to reduce the CO2 emissions from the production of grey ammonia. The company is developing a green ammonia production system that relies on renewable electricity to synthesize hydrogen from water and nitrogen from the air before combining the molecules in a proprietary converter to form ammonia. With over 80% of the world’s ammonia production being used in agriculture, FuelPositive’s system, which is portable, modular, and scalable, could contribute to a substantial reduction in agriculture-related CO2 emissions directly linked to the production of grey ammonia.
At the same time, the system could provide on-demand fuel for the highly pollutive shipping and aviation industries. And with Man Energy Solutions and the consortium having independently immersed themselves in research, the use of green ammonia as a replacement for fossil fuels is moving forward.
Man Energy Solutions, a Germany-based designer of engines, has specifically focused its energies on developing a dual-fuel ammonia engine for use in marine shipping. The company is utilizing a modular design that does not substantially modify conventional marine engine’s layout, making it easier to retrofit existing vessels to run on ammonia. This approach, it is hoped, could potentially speed up the adoption of ammonia in shipping (https://ibn.fm/b6sGz).
“The company is conducting its first full-scale two-stroke dual-fuel ammonia engine test at its headquarters for development of two-stroke engines in Copenhagen, Denmark, this summer. After the testing is complete, Man Energy will design engine iterations. This should lead to delivery of the first ammonia engine to a shipyard by the end of 2024,” reads a FreightWaves article published in February.
According to Man Energy, the inaugural ammonia dual-fuel engines will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 95% compared to engines running on marine gas oil (“MGO”). The residual 5%, anticipated to remain in the short term, arises from the use of diesel to ignite the ammonia, hence the dual-fuel tag.
Elsewhere, led by lead researcher Professor Jay Kapat, the consortium is working to develop new ammonia-fed jet engines to supply the commercial uptake of ammonia as an aviation fuel expected to occur between 2040 and 2050. Unlike jet fuel, which emits CO2 and other greenhouse gases, using liquid ammonia to power airplanes will produce harmless emissions when combusted (https://ibn.fm/EcUx8).
“Ammonia will be the hydrogen carrier, which will be catalytically ‘cracked’ to release nitrogen and hydrogen. The hydrogen will be burned in the onboard combustors (inside the engine) to provide the power…. Excess ammonia will then be used to catalytically reduce any nitrogen oxides left in the exhaust converting it to nitrogen and water,” an Ammonia Energy Association article notes.
As these players look to create propulsion systems that use ammonia, reducing the reliance on fossil fuels, FuelPositive is concerned with the green ammonia production aspect. The company anticipates rolling out the first demonstration units late this summer, a move that is likely to complement efforts in other industries.
For more information, visit the company’s website at www.FuelPositive.com.
NOTE TO INVESTORS: The latest news and updates relating to NHHHF are available in the company’s newsroom at https://ibn.fm/NHHHF
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